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தமிழ் வரலாறு | History of Tamil | Page 3 pen history in tamil

Their temple building reached its maturity and culmination in the 12th century, with over a hundred temples built across the deccan, more than half of them in present day Karnataka. Apart from temples they are also well known for ornate stepped wells ( Pushkarni ) which served as ritual bathing places, many of which are well preserved in Lakkundi. Their stepped well designs were later incorporated by the Hoysalas and the Vijayanagara empire in the coming centuries.

Hoysalas

Symmetrical architecture on  Jagati , Somanathapura, Karnataka Main article: Hoysala architecture

The Hoysala kings ruled southern India during the period AD (1100-1343) from their capital Belur and laterHalebidu in Karnataka and pen-history-in-tamil-rid-0.html. pension plan specialistsdeveloped a unique idiom of architecture called the Hoysala architecture inKarnataka state. The finest examples of their architecture are the Chennakesava Temple in Belur,Hoysaleswara temple in Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple in Somanathapura.

The modern interest in the Hoysalas is due to their patronage of art and architecture rather than their military conquests. The brisk temple building throughout the kingdom was accomplished despite constant threats from the Pandyas to the south and the Seunas Yadavas to the north. Their architectural style, an offshoot of the Western Chalukya style,   shows distinct Dravidian influences. The Hoysala architecture style is described as  Karnata Dravida  as distinguished from the traditional Dravida, and is considered an independent architectural tradition with many unique features.

Vijayanagar

Virupaksha Temple at Hampi, Karnataka Main article: Vijayanagar Architecture

The whole of South India was ruled by Vijayanagar Empire from AD(1343-1565), who built a number of temples and monuments in their hybrid style in their capital Vijayanagar in Karnataka. Their style was a combination of the styles developed in South India in the previous centuries. In addition, the  Yali  columns (pillar with charging horse), balustrades (parapets) and ornate pillared  manatapa  are their unique contribution. King Krishna Deva Raya and others built many famous temples all over South India in Vijayanagar Architecture style.

Vijayanagara architecture is a vibrant combination of the Chalukya,Hoysala, Pandya and Chola styles, idioms that prospered in previous centuries. Its legacy of sculpture, architecture and painting influenced the development of the arts long after the empire came to an end. Its stylistic hallmark is the ornate pillared Kalyanamantapa  (marriage hall),  Vasanthamantapa  (open pillared halls) and the  Rayagopura  (tower). Artisans used the locally available hard granite because of its durability since the kingdom was under constant threat of invasion. While the empire’s monuments are spread over the whole of Southern India, nothing surpasses the vast open air theatre of monuments at its capital at Vijayanagara, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In the 14th century the kings continued to build Vesara or Deccan style monuments but later incorporated dravida-style gopurams to meet their ritualistic needs. The Prasanna Virupaksha temple (underground temple) of Bukka Raya I and the Hazare Rama temple of Deva Raya I are examples of Deccan architecture. The varied and intricate ornamentation of the pillars is a mark of their work. At Hampi, though the  Vitthala  temple is the best example of their pillared  Kalyanamantapa  style, the Hazara Ramaswamy  temple is a modest but perfectly finished example. A visible aspect of their style is their return to the simplistic and serene art developed by the Chalukya dynasty .  A grand specimen of Vijayanagara art, the  Vitthala  temple, took several decades to complete during the reign of the Tuluva kings.

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← Older posts Newer posts → Search Recent Entries The Lost temple of INDIA : Mysteries of Asia(Video) The Lost temple of INDIA : Mysteries of Asia Kumari Kandam- The Lost Continent(குமரிக்கண்டம்) திராவிடக் கட்டிடக்கலை(Dravidian architecture) ‘Tamil-Korean Link is Age-Old’ எழுத்தோலைகள் (ஓலைச்சுவடிகள்) பற்றிய அரிய தகவல்கள் தேவடிகளார் ‘தேவடியா’ ஆனது எப்படி? – மறைக்கப்பட்ட உண்மைகள் Ancient temple in Madivala,Bangalore – Chola period structure தைப்பொங்கல் வரலாறு சிந்துவெளியில் ஊர்கள், துறைமுகங்கள், ஆறுகள், மலைகளின் பெயர்கள் தமிழில் (Tamil Names in Sindh [Indus] Valley) வியட்னாமை ஆண்ட பாண்டிய மன்னன் Behind China’s Hindu temples, a forgotten history சீனா நாட்டுச் சிவன் ஆலயத்தில் தமிழில் கல்வெட்டு 11000Years Old Man Made Structure Found in Indian Sea Links Blogroll Why is Emperor Raja Raja Cholan Standing outside the Thanjai Big Temple?
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olympus pen amazon.co.uk The most important part of the temple is the inner mandapa which is surrounded by massive walls that are divided into different levels by sharply cut sculptures and pilasters providing deep bays and recesses. Each side of the sanctuary has a bay emphasizing the principle cult icons. Thekaruvarai, a Tamil word meaning the interior of thesanctum sanctorum, is the inner most sanctum and focus of the temple where an image of the primarydeity, Shiva, resides. Inside is a huge stone linga Literally the word Karuvarai means “womb chamber” from Tamil wordKaru for foetus. Only priests are allowed to enter this inner most chamber. In the Dravida style, the Karuvarai takes the form of a miniature vimana with other features exclusive to southern Indian temple architecture such as the inner wall together with the outer wall creating a pradakshina around the garbhagriha for circumambulation (pradakshina). The entrance is highly decorated. The inside chamber housing the image of the god is the sanctum sanctorum, the garbhagriha. The garbhagriha is square and sits on a plinth, its location calculated to be a point of total equilibrium and harmony as it is representative of a microcosm of the universe. In the center is placed the image of the deity. The royal bathing-hall where Rajaraja the great gave gifts is located to the east of the hall of Irumudi-Soran. The circumambulation winds around the massive lingam in the garbhagriha and is repeated in an upper story, presenting the idea that Chola Empire freely offered access to the gods. The inner mandapa leads out to a rectangular mandapa and then to a twenty-columned porch with three staircases leading down. Sharing the same stone plinth is a small openmandapa dedicated to Nandi, Shiva’s sacred bull mount.

The full view of the temple   Features The temple is made up of  130,000 tons of granite . The 60-metre tall vimana is the tallest in South India. A European-like figure which is carved on the vimana is believed to be an ancient warning of the arrival of the British. Later investigations by archaeologists proposed that this carving may be a hoax. It is widely believed that the shadow of the gopuram never falls on the ground. However, some scholars have dismissed this as a myth. The shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite . This magnificent temple was built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola.

To Know More about Brihadeeswarar Temple

http://rsubbu-thoughts.blogspot.com/2011/05/tanjore-big-temple-part-i.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brihadeeswarar_Temple 360° View :  http://www.view360.in/virtualtour/thanjavur/ Rate this: Share this: Facebook Twitter Google Print Pinterest Email Tumblr LinkedIn Reddit Pocket Like this: Like Loading... 7 Comments

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September 10, 2011 · 8:51 AM Kumari Kandam- The Lost Continent(குமரிக்கண்டம்)

“Lemuria” in Tamil nationalist mysticist literature, connecting Madagascar, South India and Australia (covering most of the Indian Ocean). Mount Meru stretches southwards from Sri Lanka. The distance from Madagascar to Australia is about 4,200 miles

Kumari Kandam or Lemuria  (Tamil:குமரிக்கண்டம்) is the name of a supposed sunken landmass referred to in existing ancient Tamil literature. It is said to have been located in the Indian Ocean, to the south of present-day Kanyakumari district at the southern tip of India.

References in Tamil literature

There are scattered references in Sangam literature, such as Kalittokai 104, to how the sea took the land of the Pandiyan kings, upon which they conquered new lands to replace those they had lost. There are also references to the rivers Pahruli and Kumari, that are said to have flowed in a now-submerged land. The Silappadhikaram, a 5th century epic, states that the “cruel sea” took the Pandiyan land that lay between the rivers Pahruli and the mountainous banks of the Kumari, to replace which the Pandiyan king conquered lands belonging to the Chola and Chera kings (Maturaikkandam, verses 17-22). Adiyarkkunallar, a 12th century commentator on the epic, explains this reference by saying that there was once a land to the south of the present-day Kanyakumari, which stretched for 700  kavatam  from the Pahruli river in the north to the Kumari river in the south. As the modern equivalent of a kavatam is unknown, estimates of the size of the lost land vary from 1,400 miles (2,300 km) to 7,000 miles (11,000 km) in length, to others suggesting a total  area  of 6-7,000 square miles, or smaller still an area of just a few villages.

This land was divided into 49 nadu, or territories, which he names as seven coconut territories ( elutenga natu ), seven Madurai territories ( elumaturai natu ), seven old sandy territories ( elumunpalai natu ), seven new sandy territories ( elupinpalai natu ), seven mountain territories ( elukunra natu ), seven eastern coastal territories ( elukunakarai natu ) and seven dwarf-palm territories ( elukurumpanai natu ). All these lands, he says, together with the many-mountained land that began with KumariKollam, with forests and habitations, were submerged by the sea.Two of these Nadus or territories were supposedly parts of present-day Kollam and Kanyakumari districts.

None of these texts name the land “Kumari Kandam” or “Kumarinadu”, as is common today. The only similar pre-modern reference is to a “Kumari Kandam” (written குமரிகண்டம், rather than குமரிக்கண்டம் as the land is called in modern Tamil), which is named in the medieval Tamil text  Kantapuranam  either as being one of the nine continents, or one of the nine divisions of India and the only region not to be inhabited by barbarians. 19th and 20th Tamil revivalist movements, however, came to apply the name to the territories described in Adiyarkkunallar’s commentary to the Silappadhikaram. They also associated this territory with the references in the Tamil Sangams, and said that the fabled cities of southern Madurai and Kapatapuram where the first two Sangams were said to be held were located on Kumari Kandam.

In Tamil national mysticism

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Tamil nationalists came to identify Kumari Kandam with Lemuria, a hypothetical “lost continent” posited in the 19th century to account for discontinuities in biogeography. In these accounts, Kumari Kandam became the “cradle of civilization”, the origin of human languages in general and the Tamil language in particular. These ideas gained notability in Tamil academic literature over the first decades of the 20th century, and were popularized by the Tanittamil Iyakkam, notably by self-taught DravidologistDevaneya Pavanar, who held that all languages on earth were merely corrupted Tamil dialects.

R. Mathivanan, then Chief Editor of the Tamil Etymological Dictionary Project of the Government of Tamil Nadu, in 1991 claimed to have deciphered the still undeciphered Indus script as Tamil, following the methodology recommended by his teacher Devaneya Pavanar, presenting the following timeline (cited after Mahadevan 2002):

ca. 200,000 to 50,000 BC: evolution of “the Tamilian or  Homo Dravida “, ca. 200,000 to 100,000 BC: beginnings of the Tamil language 50,000 BC:  Kumari Kandam civilisation 20,000 BC: A lost Tamil culture of the Easter Island which had an advanced civilisation 16,000 BC: Lemuria submerged 6087 BC: Second Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king 3031 BC: A Chera prince in his wanderings in the Solomon Island saw wild sugarcane and started cultivation in Kumari Kandam. 1780 BC: The Third Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king 7th century BC: Tolkappiyam (the earliest known extant Tamil grammar)

Mathivanan uses “Aryan Invasion” rhetoric to account for the fall of this civilization:

“After imbibing the mania of the Aryan culture of destroying the enemy and their habitats, the Dravidians developed a new avenging and destructive war approach. This induced them to ruin the forts and cities of their own brethren out of enmity”.

Mathivanan claims his interpretation of history is validated by the discovery of the “Jaffna seal”, a seal bearing a Tamil-Brahmi inscription assigned by its excavators to the 3rd century BC (but claimed by Mathivanan to date to 1600 BC).

Mathivanan’s theories are not considered mainstream by the contemporary university academy internationally.

Popular culture Kumari Kandam appeared in the  The Secret Saturdays  episodes “The King of Kumari Kandam” and “The Atlas Pin.” This version is a city on the back of a giant sea serpent with its inhabitants all fish people. Loss and imagination

Sumathi Ramaswamy’s book,  The Lost Land of Lemuria: Fabulous Geographies, Catastrophic Histories  (2004) is a theoretically sophisticated [ citation needed ]  study of the Lemuria legends that widens the discussion beyond previous treatments [ citation needed ] , looking at Lemuria narratives from nineteenth-century Victorian-era science to Euro-American occultism, colonial, and post colonial India. Ramaswamy discusses particularly how cultures process the experience of loss.

Professor Karsten M. Storetvedt, the chair in geomagnetism at the University of Bergen, Norway, and an author of the Global Wrench Theory (GWT), says that the equator regions have always been most prone to natural catastrophes like earthquakes and volcano eruptions. A part of explanation is that planet rotation and especially the difference in rotation speed between poles and equator force earth mantel to strain and to break more easily where the strain is strongest, that is at the equator regions. These tectonic processes played important role in the disappearance of the ancient continent known as Lemuria to western scholars. Sri Lanka together with India, Indonesia and Malaysia were a part of this continent. Many islands in the Pacific and Indian oceans are remnants of this continent that in ancient time covered the whole area of today’s ocean. Storetvedt, who seems to reject the theory of continental drift and plate tectonics, says that descriptions of cataclysms in early literature when land suddenly went underwater are logical. But they should be proven to be scientific facts. This can be done with the help of sea-floor analysis that is possible to carry out. Modern theories find supportive evidences both in ancient literature and language history. For More Information, Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumari_Kandam http://www.thehindu.com/news/states/tamil-nadu/article482101.ece http://lemuria-kumarinadu.blogspot.com/ Rate this: Share this: Facebook Twitter Google Print Pinterest Email Tumblr LinkedIn Reddit Pocket Like this: Like Loading... 58 Comments

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August 27, 2011 · 5:44 PM திராவிடக் கட்டிடக்கலை(Dravidian architecture)

A typical Dravidian gate pyramid called Gopuram-Thiruvannamalai temple-Tamil Nadu

Dravidian architecture  was a style of architecture that emerged thousands of years ago in the Indian subcontinent. They consist primarily of pyramid shaped temples called Koils which are dependent on intricate carved stone in order to create a step design consisting of many statues of deities, warriors, kings, and dancers. The majority of the existing buildings are located in theSouthern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh,Kerala, and Karnataka. Various kingdoms and empires such as the Pallavas, Cholas, Pandyan, Chera,Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagara Empire amongst the many others have made a substantial contribution to the evolution of Dravidian architecture through the ages. Dravidian styled architecture can also be found in parts of NortheasternSri Lanka, Maldives, and various parts of Southeast Asia.

Composition and structure

The Annamalaiyar Temple in Thiruvannaamalai, India

Dravidian style temples consist almost invariably of the four following parts, arranged in various manners, as afterwards to be explained, but differing in themselves only according to the age in which they were executed:

1. The principal part, the actual temple itself, is called the  Vimanam . It is always square in plan, and surmounted by a pyramidal roof of one or more stories; and it contains the cell in which the image of the god or his emblem is placed.

2. The porches or  Mantapams , which always cover and precede the door leading to the cell.

3. Gate-pyramids,  Gopurams , which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples.

4. Pillard halls or  Chaultris—properly  Chawadis  — used for various purposes, and which are the invariable accompaniments of these temples.

Besides these, a temple always contains tanks or wells for water—to be used either for sacred purposes or the convenience of the priests—dwellings for all the various grades of the priest-hood are attached to it, and numerous other buildings for state or convenience.

Influence from different periods

In Southern India seven kingdoms and empires stamped their influence on architecture during different times.:

Sangam period

The Subrahmanya Murugan temple of Saluvankuppam, in Saluvankuppam nearMahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu. The brick shrine dates to the Sangam period and is one of the oldest Hindu temples to be unearthed

From 1000BCE-300CE, the greatest accomplishments of the kingdoms of the early Chola, Chera and the Pandyan kingdomsincluded brick shrines to deities Murugan, Shiva, Amman andThirumal (Vishnu) of the Tamil pantheon. Some were built Several of these have been unearthed near Adichanallur,Kaveripoompuharpattinam and Mahabalipuram, and the construction plans of these sites of worship were shared to some detail in various poems of Sangam literature. One such temple, the Saluvannkuppan Murukan temple, unearthed in 2005, consists of three layers. The lowest layer, consisting of a brick shrine, is one of the oldest of its kind in South India, and is the oldest shrine found dedicated to Murukan. It is one of only two brick shrine pre Pallava Hindu temples to be found in the state, the other being the Veetrirundha Perumal Temple at Veppathurdedicated to Vishnu. The dynasties of early medieval Tamilakkam expanded and erected structural additions to many of these brick shrines. Sculptures of erotic art, nature and deities from the MaduraiMeenakshi Amman Temple, Chidambaram Thillai Nataraja Temple and the SrirangamRanganathaswamy Temple date from the Sangam period.

Pallavas

The Rathas in Mahabalipuram-Tamilnadu

The Pallavas ruled from AD (600-900) and their greatest constructed accomplishments are  the single rock temples in Mahabalipuram and their capitalKanchipuram, now located in Tamilnadu.

Pallavas were pioneers of south Indian architecture. The earliest examples of temples in the Dravidian style belong to the Pallava period. The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from 610 – 690 CE and structural temples between 690 – 900 CE. The greatest accomplishments of the Pallava architecture are the rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram. There are excavated pillared halls and monolithic shrines known as rathas in Mahabalipuram. Early temples were mostly dedicated to Shiva.  The Kailasanatha temple also called Rajasimha Pallaveswaram in Kanchipuram built by Narasimhavarman II also known as Rajasimha is a fine example of the Pallava style temple. Mention must be made here of the Shore Temple constructed by Narasimhavarman II near Mahabalipuram which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Contrary to popular impression about the succeeding empire of the Cholas pioneering in building large temple complexes, it was the Pallavas who actually pioneered not only in making large temples after starting construction of rock cut temples without using mortar, bricks etc.(**) The shining examples of such temples are the Thiruppadagam and Thiruooragam temples that have 28 and 35 feet (11 m) high images of Lord Vishnu in his manifestation as Pandavadhoothar and Trivikraman forms of himself. In comparison the Siva Lingams in the Royal Temples of the Cholas at Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapurams are 17 and 18 feet (5.5 m) high. Considering that the Kanchi Kailasanatha Temple built by Rajasimha Pallava was the inspiration for Raja Raja Chola’s Brihadeeswara at Thanjavur, it can be safely concluded that the Pallavas were among the first emperors in India to build both large temple complexes and very large deities and idols(**) Many Siva and Vishnu temples at Kanchi built by the great Pallava emperors and indeed their incomparable Rathas and the Arjuna’s penance Bas Relief (also called descent of the Ganga) are proposed UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The continuous Chola, Pallava and Pandiyan belt temples (along with those of the Adigaimans near Karur and Namakkal), as well as the Sethupathy temple group between Pudukottai and Rameswaram uniformly represent the pinnacle of the South Indian Style of Architecture that surpasses any other form of architecture prevalent between the Deccan Plateau and Kanniyakumari(**). Needless to add that in the Telugu country the style was more or less uniformly conforming to the South Indian or Dravidian idiom of architecture.(**)

Pandya

Srivilliputtur Andal Temple is the official symbol of the Government of Tamilnadu. It is said to have been built by Periyaazhvar, the father-in-law of the Lord, with a purse of gold that he won in debates held in the palace of PandyaKing Vallabhadeva.

The primary landmark of Srivilliputtur is 12-tiered tower structure dedicated to the Lord of Srivilliputtur, known as Vatapatrasayee. The tower of this temple rises 192 feet (59 m) high and is the official symbol of the Government of Tamil Nadu. It is said to have been built by Periyaazhvar, the father-in-law of the Lord, with a purse of gold that he won in debates held in the palace ofPandya King Vallabhadeva. The Government of Tamil Nadu uses this temple tower as part of its symbol.

Cholas

Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple-Tamilnadu

The Chola kings ruled from AD (848-1280) and included Rajaraja Chola I and his sonRajendra Chola who built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and theSarabeswara (Shiva )Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple  at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three among the above four temples are titled Great Living Chola Temples among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first king Vijayalaya Chola after whom the eclectic chain of Vijayalaya Chozhisvaram temple near Narttamalai exists. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions.

Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of Aditya I Parantaka I,Sundara Chola, Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola I. The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. In a small portion of the Kaveri belt between Tiruchy-Tanjore-Kumbakonam, at the height of their power, the Cholas have left over 2300 temples, with the Tiruchy-Thanjavur belt itself boasting of more than 1500 temples. The magnificent Siva temple of Thanjavur built by Raja Raja I in1009 as well as the Brihadisvara  Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, completed around 1030, are both fitting memorials to the material and military achievements of the time of the two Chola emperors. The largest and tallest of all Indian temples of its time, the Tanjore Brihadisvara is at the apex of South Indian architecture. In fact, two succeeding Chola kings Raja Raja II and Kulothunga III built the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram and the Kampahareswarar Siva Temple at Tribhuvanam respectively, both temples being on the outskirts of Kumbakonam around AD 1160 and AD 1200. All the four temples were built over a period of nearly 200 years reflecting the glory, prosperity and stability under the Chola emperors.

Contrary to popular impression, the Chola emperors patronized and promoted construction of a large number of temples that were spread over most parts of the Chola empire. These include 40 of the 108 Vaishnava Divya Desams out of which 77 are found spread most of South India and others in Andhra and North India(**). In fact, the Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam, which is the biggest temple in India (**) and the Chidambaram Natarajar Temple (though originally built by the Pallavas but possibly seized from the Cholas of the pre-Christian era when they ruled from Kanchi) (**) were two of the most important temples patronized and expanded by the Cholas and from the times of the second Chola King Aditya I, these two temples have been hailed in inscriptions as the tutelary deities of the Chola Kings (**). Of course, the two Brihadisvara Temples at Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram as well as the other two Siva temples, namely the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva )Temple which is also popular as the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, both on the outskirts of Kumbakonam were the royal temples of the Cholas to commemorate their innumerable conquests and subjugation of their rivals from other parts of South India, Deccan Ilangai or Sri Lanka and the Narmada-Mahanadi-Gangetic belts(**). But the Chola emperors underlined their non-partisan approach to religious iconography and faith by treating the presiding deities of their other two peerless creations, namely theRanganathaswamy Temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu at Srirangam and the Nataraja Temple atChidambaram which actually is home to the twin deities of Siva and Vishnu (as the reclining Govindarajar) to be their ‘Kuladheivams’ or tutelary (or family) deities(**). The Cholas also preferred to call only these two temples which home their tutelary or family deities as  Koil  or the ‘Temple’, which denotes the most important places of worship for them, underlining their eq. The above-named temples are being proposed to be included among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites, which will elevate them to the exacting and exalting standards of the Great Living Chola Temples(**).

The temple of Gangaikondacholapuram, the creation of Rajendra Chola I, was intended to exceed its predecessor in every way. Completed around 1030, only two decades after the temple at Thanjavur and in much the same style, the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire under Rajendra. This temple has a larger Siva linga than the one at Thanjavur but the Vimana of this temple is smaller in height than the Thanjavur vimana.

The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes all over the world. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Siva in various forms, such as Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, and the Siva saints. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11 th  and the 12 th  centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.

Badami Chalukyas Main article: Badami Chalukya Architecture

Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, Karnataka built in 740

The Badami Chalukyas also called the Early Chalukyas, ruled from Badami, Karnataka in the period AD 543 -753 and spawned the Vesara style called Badami Chalukya Architecture. The finest examples of their art are seen in Pattadakal, Aihole and Badami in northern Karnataka. Over 150 temples remain in the Malaprabhabasin.

The most enduring legacy of the Chalukya dynasty is the architecture and art that they left behind. More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to the Badami Chalukya, and built between 450 and 700, remain in the Malaprabha basin in Karnataka.

The rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Badami and Aihole are their most celebrated monuments. Two of the famous paintings atAjanta cave no. 1, “The Temptation of the Buddha” and “The Persian Embassy” are attributed to them. This is the beginning of  Chalukya  style of architecture and a consolidation of South Indian style.

Rashtrakutas

The view of the Kailash Temple from the top. The photo is taken at the cave temples clusters of Ellora, Maharastra, India.

The Rashtrakutas who ruled the deccan fromManyakheta, Gulbarga district, Karnataka in the periodAD 753 – 973 built some of the finest Dravidian monuments at Ellora (the Kailasanatha temple), in the rock cut architecture idiom. Some other fine monuments are the Jaina Narayana temple at Pattadakal and the Navalinga temples at Kuknur in Karnataka.

The Rashtrakutas contributed much to the culture of theDeccan. The Rashtrakuta contributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rock-cut shrines at Ellora and Elephanta, situated in present dayMaharashtra. It is said that they altogether constructed 34 rock-cut shrines, but most extensive and sumptuous of them all is the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora. The temple is a splendid achievement of Dravidian art. The walls of the temple have marvellous sculptures from Hindy mythology including Ravana, Shiva andParvathi while the ceilings have paintings.

The project was commissioned by King Krishna I after the Rashtrakuta rule had spread into South India from the Deccan. The architectural style used was dravidian. It does not contain any of the  Shikharas common to the  Nagara  style and was built on the same lines as the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal inKarnataka.

Western Chalukyas Main article: Western Chalukya architecture

Dodda Basappa temple, Dambal, Gadag district,Karnataka

The Western Chalukyas also called the Kalyani Chalukyas or Later Chalukyas ruled the deccan from AD973 – 1180 from their capital Kalyani in modern Karnataka and further refined the Chalukyan style, called the Western Chalukya architecture. Over 50 temples exist in the Krishna River-Tungabhadra doab in central Karnataka. The Kasi Vishveshvara at Lakkundi, Mallikarjuna at Kuruvatii, Kalleshwara temple at Bagali and Mahadeva at Itagi are the finest examples produced by the Later Chalukya architects.

The reign of Western Chalukya dynasty was an important period in the development of architecture in the deccan. Their architectural developments acted as a conceptual link between the Badami Chalukya Architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala architecture popularised in the 13th century. The art of Western Chalukyas is sometimes called the “Gadag style” after the number of ornate temples they built in the Tungabhadra – Krishna River doab region of present day Gadag district in Karnataka.

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A list of Tamil Novels of well known authors of 20th Century 20th Century Tamil Authors and Their Works
Following is a select collection of works of 20th Century authors with the name of the publisher shown (in three letter code ) in parenthesis. A list of publishers with their three letter code can be found at the end of this page.
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TRANSLITERATION SCHEME USED (Madurai/Adami)
vowels: a, aa/A, i, ii/I/ee, u, U/uu/oo, e, E, ai, o, O, au/ow, q/ah
consonants: k/g, ng/NG, c/ch, ny/NY, t/d, N, th/dh, n^, p, m,
y, r, l, v, z/zh, L, R, n
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aikkan karikalan kanavu (VAP)
akilan (P.V. akilANdam, 1922-1988) ciththirap pAvai (TPA) vEngkaiyin main^than (TPA) kAyal vizhi (TPA) neNYcinalaikaL (TPA) eri malai (TPA) cakthivEl (TPA) n^ilavinilE (TPA) nalla paiyan (TPA) peN (TPA) engkE pOhirOm (TPA) pAvai viLakku inba ninaivu thuNaivi cinEkithi nengin alaigaL avaLukku vazhvu engE canthippu puthu veLLam koLLaikkAran vetrithi thirunakar pAzhmark kAttinilE
anurAdhA ramaNan uruha marukkum mezhukuvarthi(VAP) thoongum ninaivuhal (VAP) kaRpoorak kARRu (TMP) ethanai kAlam unakkAka (TMP) puvanA ennum puyal (TMP) yarumingkE rAmanillO (TMP) mazhaikAla mallikaikaL (TMP) viLakkilla cathirangkaL (TMP) rakaciyak kanavugaL (TMP) an^tharathil Or Unycal (TMP) kAdal yAthirai (TMP) mEham thEdum vAnam (TMP) vazhikAti vazhi thavaRukiRathu (TMP) mAyamanam (TMP) nizhalukku Engkum marangkaL (TMP) thenRalE AdivA (TMP) candhippu thodarum (TMP) vidyacamAi vidya (TMP) thuNaiyak oru paRavai (TMP) kAdalukku oru(th)thii (TMP) maran^thu pO nenycamE (TMP) collAthE yARum kEttal n^ii mattum varalAm (TMP) ivar thAn konycam kavani vilahavA pazhakinOm (TMP) enRum un rANi (TMP) iraNdAvathu vAzhkkai (TMP) thottil cugam (TMP) mungthanaith thottil (TMP) muthamitta coppanangkaL (TMP) thEvai oru cin^Ekathi (TMP) anubhava alaikaL (TMP) ippadiku n^anRiyudan (TMP) kOlaththai maRRavA (TMP) kanavOdu cilan^AL (TMP)
anuttamA (Rajeswari Padmanabhan, 1922 - ) curuthipEdam kEtta varam (AP) orE oru vArthai (AP) inbaththEn maNalviidu jeyanthipurath thiruvizha arpavishayam prEmakiitham naintha vuLLam (AP) thavam (AP)
appas, mu nilA avaL vAnaththu mElE (MMP) thidukkidac ceikiRArkaL (MMP) kuLirkAlak kuRRangkaL (MMP)
cANdilyan (S. Bhasyam, 1910-1987) kadalpuRa I-III(1 set) (VAP) yavana raaNi I,II(I set)(VAP) jaladeepam I-III (I set) (VAP) raajamuthirai I,II(I set) (VAP) mannan mahaL (110.00) (VAP) kanni maadam (VAP) raaja thilakam (VAP) moonkil kOtai (VAP) udaya bhAnu (VAP) nilamangai (VAP) chandiramathi (VAP) vasantha kaalam (VAP) mohini vAnam (VAP) naaha deepam (VAP ) malai vaacal (VAP) cerancelvi (VAP ) vilai raaNi (VAP) pallava thilakam jeeva bhoomi(VAP) manjal aaRu ilaya raaNi (VAP) neelavaLLi (VAP) chittiranjani (VAP) indirakumAri (VAP) mangaladEvi (VAP) naaga dEvi (VAP) raaja yOham (VAP) avani sundari (VAP) neelvizhi (VAP) jalamOhini (VAP) kavarnda kaNgal (VAP) raaNiyin kanavu (VAP) raaNa hameer (VAP) madhumalar (VAP) vacantha kAlam raaja pErihai maNYal Aru mUngkil kOttai pANdiyan pavAni palAthkAram
dEvan (mahAdEvan. R, 1913-1957) CID chandru justice jagannAthan thuppariyum cAmbu mistar vEthantham lakshmi katAksham kalyANi rAjaththin manOratham kOmathiyin kAthalan rajAmaNi mis jAnaki
bAlakumAran pOradum peNmaNikaL (TMP) cin^EkamuLLa cingkam (TMP) kAdal veNNilA (TMP) n^AnE enakkoru pOdimaram (TMP) ini en murai (TMP) Asai ennum vEdam en kaNmaNi (TMP) akalyA (TMP) merkurip pookkaL (TMP) karaiyOra mudalaikaL (TMP) enRenRum anbudan (TMP) kAnal thAham (TMP) etta n^inRu cutta nilA (TMP) viciRi cAmiyar (TMP) cundari kaNNal oru cEdhi (TMP) Asaik kadal (TMP) adukku malli (TMP) nellic choRu (TMP) vanni maraththali (TMP) iravil kavithai (TMP) anbukku panycmillai (TMP) Anan^da vayal (TMP) oru vazhippAdhai (TMP) kirushNa arjunan (TMP) thAyumAnavan (TMP) irumbukku kudiraigal munkathaic curukkam (TMP) cinna cinna vattangkaL (TMP) panthayap puRA (TMP) varNa viyApAram (TMP) iniyellAm cukamE (TMP) thalaiyaNaip pUkkaL (TMP) vilvamaram (TMP) palAmaram (TMP) kanavukaL viRpavan (TMP) uravil kalanthu uNarvil n^anainthu(TMP) pakal viLakku (TMP) thirumaNath theevu (TMP) maNal nathi (TMP) mAnasa dEvi (TMP) AruyirE mannavanE (TMP) thuppuL kodi (TMP) payanikaL kavanikkavum (TMP) mEyccal maidAnam (TMP) inithu inithu kAthal inithu (TMP) marakkAl (TMP) kaNNAdi kOpurangkaL (TMP) irumbuk kuthiraikaL (TMP) en manathu thAmaraippU (TMP) maunamE kAthalAka (TMP) n^ii varuvAi ena (TMP) unnidaththil ennaik koduththEn (TMP) kanavuk kudiththanam (TMP) kaiviicammA kai viicu (TMP) uLLam kavar kaLvan (TMP) iraNdAvathu cUriyan (TMP) n^ilAvE vA (TMP) kadarpAlam (TMP) ini iravu ezhunthiru (TMP)
civacangkari (1942 - ) naan nanaaha (VAP) paalangaL (VAP) ethaRkAha (TMP) Ayiram kAlatthup payir (TMP) ithuvum thajmahAl thAn (TMP) AyuL thaNdanai (TMP) pirayaccitham (TMP) kARRuLLapOthE (TMP) mookkaNAngkayiRu (TMP) tirangkAl (TMP) oru cingkam muyalAkirathu (TMP) oovar doose (TMP) thiirvu (TMP) maN kuthiraikaL (TMP) ruci kaNda poonai(TMP) adu cari appuRam (TMP) aravindar collukiRar (TMP) ini thodarathu (TMP) kAdal enpadu eduvarai (TMP) manam kavarn^tha malEsiya (TMP) oru pahal oru iravu (TMP) n^ool ENi (TMP) theppak kuLam (TMP) malaiyin adutha pakkam (TMP) andamA romba nallavangka (TMP) pacchon^thigal (TMP) en kaNNOttathil (TMP) appA (TMP) uyarn^thavarhaL (TMP) puduppudu anubhavangkal (TMP) katta maN (TMP) kutti (TMP) thavam (TMP) karuNaik kolai (TMP) surA meengal (TMP) uNNmaik kathaikal (TMP) n^atpu (TMP) kaN ketta pin (TMP) innoru kAraNam (TMP) poi (TMP) oRRap paravai (TMP) tappuk kaNakku (TMP) avan (TMP) oru appAvum iraNdu peNkaLum (TMP) ammA (TMP) vaLartha kada (TMP) kuzhappangkaL (TMP) iraNdu pEr (TMP) konycam yOcikkalamE (TMP) nappAcai (TMP) 47 naatkaL oru manithanin kathai chinna nool kanda nammai sirappadutthuvadu (VAP)
carOja rAmamUrthi (1921- ) paniththuLi muthuccippi iruLum oLiyum vazhiththuNai iru kathaikaL navarAthhrip paricu
cundarEsan, je. aar nerungki nerungi vaRukiRaL (MMP) pAcAngku (MMP) pUngkARRu (MMP) kungkumam (MMP) kAthampAvin ethiri (MMP) muLLin kAthal (MMP) manas (MMP) ponnin ponnakai (MMP)
cujAthA (S. rangarAjan, 1935- ) srirangkathu thEvadaikaL (TMP) vairangkaL (TMP) anithAvin kAthalkaL (TMP) maRuthal varum (TMP) enRavathu oru n^AL (TMP) vinynyapf pArvaiyilirundu (TMP) vacanthakAla kuRRangkaL (TMP) adutha nORRANdu (TMP) kanavuth thozhiRchalai (TMP) karaiyellam chenbakappU (TMP) oru pirayANam oru kolai (TMP) kaduvuL van^dirun^dar (TMP) gurupracAd kadaici dinam (TMP) AdalinAl kAdal ceivIr (TMP) nijathai thEdi (TMP) irayil punnahai (TMP) Ayirathil iruvar (TMP) thanga muduchchu (TMP) pirivOm canthippOm I, II (TMP) appA anbuLLa appA (TMP) thicai kaNdEn vankaNdEn (TMP) pathinAlu n^AtkaL (TMP) maRupadiyum ganEsh (TMP) ethaiyum oru muRai (TMP) UNYal (TMP) jannal malar (TMP) niramaRRa vAnavil (TMP) mErkE oru kuRRam (TMP) madhyamar (TMP) mis thamizh thayE n^amaskAram (TMP) vivAdhangkaL vimarcanangkaL (TMP) Ayiram oLippori vArthaikaL (TMP) cinnakuyili (TMP) kANNikai appavin Austin (VAP) vAimaiyE cilasamayam vellum (VAP) vasanthi X vasanth (VAP) ganEsh X vasanth (VAP) nillungaL raajavE (VAP) en iniya iyandhira ( I & II) (KUP) priyA (KUP) gAyathri(KUP) nnrendhiranin vinOdha (KUP) vazhkku (Drama) (KUP) nailAn kayiru nil kavani thattu vAnam ennum viithiyilE nirvANa nakaram karaiyellAm cenpakappU apsarA marupadiyum kanEsh thEdAthE vacanthakAla kuRRangkaL srirangkAttu thEvathaikaL irayil punnakai pothu maraththu puthu mukangkaL athanAl kAthal ceiviir vAimaye cila camayam vellum irupaththinAngku rupAi thIvu hostal thinangkaL kannaiyazhin kadaisi pAkkangal(KUP)
cuprajA paNam, peN, pakai (MMP) kol, kol en thOzhA (MMP) thOttA thOttam (MMP)
camudhram cu. manam kotti manidharhal (VAP) innoru urimai (VAP) avaLukkaha (VAP) vaada malli (VAP) carOjA rAmamUrthi muthuch chippi (VAP) arangam (VAP) vAcanthi kuttravaaLi (novel) (VAP) vErkaLaith thEdi (VAP) caraswathi ramn^Ath maha nanda (marathi) (VAP) nandini (sindi novel) (VAP)
cOmu mee. pa. veedhik kanavu (VAP) nandavanam (VAP) madhulangkanru (VAP) impon metti (VAP) dEvi bAlA veliye theriyum verhal (VAP) naaLoru poomalarum (VAP) kanaak kaanum kangal (VAP)
gowdama neelambaran pallava mohini (VAP) nila mutram (VAP)
indirA pArthacArathi (Dr. Ranganathan Parthasarathy, 1931- ) kuruthippunal (TPA) aurangkaceep (TPA) aakacaththAmarai (TPA) thanthira pUmi kaala veLLam (1968) cuthanthira pUmi thiivukaL nilamEnthum nallAl mAyamAn vEttai venthu thaNintha kAdukaL ucci veyyil vezhangkaL helikaptarkaL irangivittana akni manitha theivangkaL nAcakkAra kumpal yukatarmaan mazhai
indirA coundararAjan kAdal uddam (VAP) ondrin niram irandu (VAP) krishnadhasi (VAP)
in^dumathi thoduvAna manitharkaL (TPA) tharaimEl irangum vimAngal (KUP) sakthi (KUP)
jAvar citArAman minnal, mazhai, mOhini (AP) paNam, peN, pAcam (AP) udal, poruL, Ananthi (AP) n^AnE n^An (AP) corkkaththil puyal (AP) kAcE kadavuL (AP)
jeyakAnthan, thaNdapANi (1934- ) pArisukkup pO (MPN) cila n^ErangkaLil cila manithargaL (MPN) cun^dara kANdam (MPN) oru n^adigai n^Adagam pArkiRaL (MPN) jeya jeya caNYkara (MPN) oru manithan oru veedu oru ulakam (MPN) kaRRu veLiyinilE (MPN) unnaippOl oruvan (MPN) kOkila enna ceiduvittAL (MPN) innum oru peNNin kathai (MPN) vAzhkai azhaikiRathu (MPN) cinimAvukku pOna ciththaL (MPN) in^dha nErathil ivaL (MPN) yArukkA azhuthAn (MPN) piraLayam (MPN) kai vilangku (MPN) pirammOpadEsam (MPN) kangai engE pohiRaL (MPN) eesvara allA thErA rAm (MPN) idaya rANikaLum ispEdu rAjAkkaLum (MPN) kazhuththil vizunda mAlai (MPN) pAvam oru pAppAththu (MPN) O amerikka (MPN) ovvoru kUraikkum kIzhE (MPN) aayudha poojai (MPN) moongil kAttu n^ilA (MPN) kAththirukka oruththi (MPN) illAthavarkaL (MPN) oorukku n^ooru pEr (MPN) enggengku kANinum (MPN) karu (MPN) oru manithanum cila erumai mAdukaLum (MPN) karikkOdukaL (MPN) karuNaiyinAl alla (MPN) an^tha akkAvaith thEdi (MPN) pAttimArkaLum pEththimArkaLum (MPN) rishi moolam (MPN) appAvukku appA conna kadaikaL (MPN) gangai engE pOhirAL kaivilangi pAzhpEtham inippum karippum tharkkam thurkai urangkuvathu pOlum yukacAnthi antharangkam punithamAnathu kurupiitam
jekacirpiyan (1920-1978) thiruccirambalam (1958) ALavAi azhakan (1960) pattinakkOttam (1964) maNNin kuraL (1961) kilingjal kOpuram (1969) Ezhmaiyin paricu (1948) cAvin muththam (1949) kombuththEn (1951) mathurAnthaki (1955) nAyaki narcOnai (1959) Umaikkuyil (1960) poykkAl kuthirai (1960) makarayazh mangkai (1961) nondippiLLaiyAr (1961) corkaththin nizhal (1962) narikkuraththi (1964), mArampAvai (1964) kAval theivam (1967) iniya neNYcam (1967) katikAracciththar (1967) nizhalin karpu (1969) kANakkidaikAtha thaNYam (1970) ajanayanam (1972) mOkamanthiram (1973) nanthi varman kAthali
jawahar, kE. ji kAthalukku vEliyillai (MMP) OdAthE kolaikArA (MMP) ella viLakkum civappalla (MMP) vidinthAl vipariitham (MMP) kAthal varam thA (MMP)
je.dee. aar kuRRaththin thuvakka vizhA (MMP) kAkithak kuRRangkaL (MMP) kollAmath thutikkuthu manacu (MMP) kAthal enpathu kolai varai (MMP) hello inspector (MMP) an^tha poNNU vENdAm (MMP) vENdum vipariitham (MMP) kAthal kAlam ithu (MMP) uyiraith thanthuvidu (MMP) thiRakkAthE, apAyam (MMP) ammA viittuc ciithanam (MMP) kolai vAricu (MMP) kaLavukku kai koduppOm (MMP) thottukkolla Acai (MMP)
karuNAn^ithi pongi varum puthu veLLam (TMP) iLaiya camudAyam ezhukavE (TMP) neNYukku n^iithi pAkam (TMP) cangkath thamizh pAyumpuli paNdAraka vaNNiyam (TMP) thenpANdi cingkam (TMP) ponnar cangkar (TMP)
kalki (R. Krishnamurthi, 1899-1954) ponniyin selvan I-V (1950-55,VAP) alai Osai (1948, VAP) civakAmiyin cabadam(1944, VAP) pArthiban kanavu (1941, VAP) maadathEvan kanai (VAP) veeNai bhavani(VAP) jameendAr mahan (VAP) cOlaimalai iLavaraci (1947, VAP) cAradaiyin than^diram (VAP) thiruvazhundUr civakkozundu (VAP) kaLvanin kAthali (1938) thyAka bUmi (1938) makutAthipathi (1942) apalaiyin kaNNiir (1974) thEvakiyin kaNavan (1950) mohinith thiivu (1950) poymaan karatu (1951) ponnai vanaththup puli (1952) amara thArA (1954)
kaNNadAcan (A.L. muthaiyA, 1926-1981) cEraman kadali (VAP) aaci (VAP) paarimalaik kodi (VAP) aayiramkAl maNdapam (VAP) manadhukku thUkamillai(VAP) caracuvin coundarya lahari (VAP) Umaiyan kOtai (VAP) vElankudith thiruvizha (VAP) brin^dhAvanam (VAP) vilakkumattumA civappu (VAP) manampOl vAzhvu (VAP) cingAri pArtha chennai (VAP) adaivida rahaciyam kannadaasan kadaihal (VAP) saidikkadaihal (VAP) vanavaasam (history) kAthal koNda tennAdu oru kaviNYanin kathai cinkAri pArtha cennai sindhittEn sindhittEn (VAP) civagangai ceemai (drama) (VAP) raaja dhaNdanai (drama) (VAP) anaarkali (drama) (VAP) avaL oru inthup peN (KP) civappukkal mUkkuththi (KP) raththa pushpangkaL (KP) avaLukkAka oru pAdal (KP) svarna carasvathi (KP) nadantha kathai (KP) micA (KP) muppathu nALum powrNami (KP) kadal koNda thennAdu (KP) arangkamum antharangkamum (KP) Ayiram thiivu angkayarkaNNi (KP) theivath thirumaNangkaL nAtakam (KP)
kaviNYar vairamuthu ithanAl cakalamAnavarkaLukkum (TMP) kAvi niraththil oru kAthal (TMP) inthap pUkkaL virpanaikkalla (TMP) en pazhaiya panai OlaikaL (TMP) inthak kuLaththil kallerinthavarkaL (TMP) raththa thAnam (TMP) cirpiyE unnai cethukkukirEn (TMP) ella nathiyilum en Odam (TMP) thiruththi ezhuthiya thiirpu (TMP) kavirAjan kathai (TMP) ithuvari naan (TMP) kodimaraththil vErkaL (TMP) villOdu vA nilavE (TMP) en jannalin vazhiyE (TMP) oru maunaththin capthangkaL (TMP) kalvettukkaL (TMP) avaLukku mElE oru vAnam (TMP) kElvikaLal oru vELvi (TMP) vadukapatti muthal vAlka varai (TMP)
kOvai maNicEkaran (1927 - ) cErasooriyan (VAP) kuRRalak kuravanchi (VAP) ajAtha chatru (VAP) than^thaiyumAnavan (TMP) kARRu veLiyidaik kaNNammA (TMP) cEran kulakkkodi (TMP) vEngkai vanam (TMP) thOhai mayil (TMP) rAja karjanai (TMP) collith therivathillai (TMP) azhakin n^iram (TMP) verum vayiru cirukathaic celvam vAzhvin viLakkukaL oru viithiyin kathai thennagkiiRRu mungkil ilaimEL cempaiyin celvi kangkai nAcciyAr yAka cAlai thAyum cEyum rAja mOhini (MMP) cuthanthira pUmiyil veLLainira nAraikaL n^iila mallikai (MMP) mukilil muLaiththa mukam (MMP)
kOmakaL (Rajalakshmi Ramamurthi, 1933 - ) panimalar anbin citharal iruvaril oruvar cudar viLakku muthal canthippu uyirin amuthE mEka ciththirangkaL mAya vAzhvu
kumAracAmi, thA.n^A kuRukkuc cuvar (AP) kanyA kumAri (AP)
kumudhini (T. Ranganayaki) thivAn mahaL niilu (Nila Ramamurthi, 1923 - ) kamalAvin dairi kungkumam kalyANiyin kanavu kadampacAram cirithathu lakshmi mithila vilAs (TMP) vacanthakAla mEham (TMP) ammA enakkaha (TMP) kAla muzhuvadum kAthiruppEn (TMP) latciyavAthi (TMP) kAnycanaiyin kanavu (TMP) idO oru ithayam (TMP) vAnampAdikku oru vilangku (TMP) pUkkuzhi (TMP) mannippin maRupakkam (TMP) oRRai natcathiram (TMP) azahu ennum theivam (TMP) kaiyil aLLiya malarkaL (TMP) vaira mookkuthi (TMP) mangkaLavin kaNavan (TMP) corgaththin kathavuhal (TMP) cooryakangtham (TMP) maNNum poNNum (TMP) unakku nAn enakku n^ii (TMP) thoduvAnam veLiyilE (TMP) koondukku veLiyE (TMP) veLLai n^iRathil our poonai (TMP) uyirE OdivA (TMP) cAdharaNa manithan (TMP) AprikA kaNdathil pala ANdukal(TMP) vENA oru vENai (TMP) arraku mAligai pen manam padiththa manaivi (AP)
lakshmi rAjarathnam ithayakkOyil (AP) pUkkaL menmaiyAnavai (AP) nurse mAthavi (AP)
mAyAvi (S.K. Raman, 1917 - ) akathi calanam onrE vAzhvu makkaL celvam
mahEn^dran oorikki (VAP) metti (VAP) marudhani (VAP) thangapadhakkam
mEthA, mu kanavuk kuthiraikaL (TMP) Urvalam (TMP) oru vAnam iru cirahu (TMP) ithayathil nARkAli (TMP) kaNNiir pookaL (TMP) thiruvizhavil oru therup pAdahan (TMP) n^an^thavana n^AtkaL (TMP) muhaththukku muham (TMP) avarhaL varukirArkaL (TMP) n^adan^tha n^AdahangkaL (TMP) ennudaiya pOdhi marangkaL (TMP) kAththirun^tha kARRu (TMP) avaLukku oru kaditham (TMP) pakkam pArththup pEcuhirEn (TMP) idaya vAcaL (TMP) ninaiththathu n^ehizhn^thathu (TMP) nAnum en kavithaiyum (TMP) thiran^tha puththakam (TMP) n^Ayakam oru kAviyam (TMP) chozha nilA
n^atarAjan, A. ninaivellam nirmala (VAP)
prabaNYan nERRu manitharkaL (TPA) oru vooril iraNdu manitharkaL (TPA) AngkaLum peNkaLum (TPA) mahAn^athi (TPA)
pArthacArathi, naa (P. Manivannan, 1932- ) thuLaci mAdam (TPA) cAyangkAla mEkangkaL (TPA) kuruNYi malar pon vilangku pattuppUchi kapAtha puram nerrikkirAn malaiccikaram paNdimAthEvi maNipallavam pirantha maN camuthAya viithi neNYa kanal AtmAvin rakangkal aNintha malar arathin kural ilaiyuthir kAlathu iravukaL kOpura thiipam vaNYi mAnakaram niila nayanangkaL karchuvarkaL cAththiya veLLam poy mukangkaL paccai kuzhanthaikal thiivatti koLLai nallappAmbu thiirpu ithu pothu vazhi alla puthiya pAlam kangkai innum vatRividavillai valampuri cangku thEvaithaikalum corkalum
punithan avan avaL avar (MMP) kutti natcaththiram (MMP) ivar avaralla (MMP) pErukku oru manaivi (MMP) pErukku oru kaNavan (MMP) kalA, en cilAsmEt (MMP) Acai mukam maranthupOccE (MMP) kaRRathu kAthal aLavu (MMP) irumpukkum ithayamuNdu (MMP) athO avaLthAn (MMP) than^thaiyumAnavaL (MMP) orE tharam orE thAram (MMP) poNNE poimAnE (MMP)
priya kalyANarAman enakku pin evan? (MMP) kUdaiyilE enna pU? (MMP) muRpakal ceyyin piRpakal vilangku (MMP) kAthal pallakku (MMP)
premA n^an^thakumAr puyal nilaippathillai (AP) amuthathuLi uthirn^thathu (AP) oru nAL pozhuthu (AP)
rAjam krishNan (Mitra, 1925- ) vErukku niir (TPA) kazhalil mithakkum thIpangkaL (TPA) cERRil manitharkaL (TPA) malarkaL (TPA) karippu maNikaL (TPA) avan (TPA) Uciyum uNarvum peN kuraL anpuk kada mAyaccuzhal kaiviLakku bAnuvin kAthalar kuriNYithEN thanga muL malai aruvi vaLaikkaram puyalin maiyam vilangkukaL vErukku niir rOja ithazhkaL kAdukaL muLLum malarnthathu annaiyar pUmi viidu alaivAikkaraiyil calanangkal vidiyum mun kattuk kAval iruthiyum thodakkamum karuppu manikaL kAlam paccai kodi alai kadalilE uyirppu
rangarAjan, rA. ki (1927- ) moovirandu eezhu (VAP) vayadu padineezhu (VAP) padahu veedu (VAP) cumai thAngki iru caththiyam muthal mottu muthaliya palA pallakku nilA ninaiyumA? thitiirendru oru nAl
ranganAyaki, S (1924 - ) thiyAkaththin madiyil pAkkiyavathi thai piranthathu
rAmanAthan, L (1926-1977) cankarlAl innoru ceruppu engE maraintha nakaram veRi rAmacAmi, cuntara (1931 - ) akkarai ciimaiyil thiraikaL Ayiram pallakku thAkkikaL oru puliyamarathin kathai paLLam nadunici nAikaL rAmanAthan, aru irAjarAja chOzhan kathAnAyaki kOzhippandhayam vEdALam conna kadaikaL manOraNYitham vAnavil viirapANdiyan manaivi kuNdu mallikai S.A.P cinnammA (MMP) kAthalenum thiivinilE (MMP) pirammacAri (MMP) enakkenru Or ithayam (MMP) inRirvu (MMP) piRantha nAL (MMP) Oviyam (MMP) collAthE (MMP) nakarangkaL mUnru, corkam onru (MMP) nii (MMP) inRE, ingkE, ippOthE (MMP) malarkinRa paruvaththil (MMP) unnaiyE rathiyenru (MMP) kettathu yArAlE (MMP) mUnRAvathu (MMP)
thEvan ('Anantha vikatan")
justice jagannAthan (AP) mister vEdAntham (AP) kOmathiyin kAthalan (AP) srimAn cutharcanam (AP) c.i.d. canthuru (AP) En intha acattuththanam (AP) mallari rao kathaikaL (AP) nadan^thathu n^adanthapadiyE (AP) mAlathi (AP) rAjiyin piLLai (AP) pArvathiyin cangkalpam (AP) viccuvukku kadithangkaL (AP) cinnaNYciRu kathaikaL (AP) manitha cupAvam (AP) pallucAmiyin thuppu (AP) ciinuppayal (AP) jAngkiri cundaram (AP) pOkkiri mAma (AP) appaLak kaccEri (AP)
thAmaraikaNNan (V. Rajamanickam, 1934 - ) ellAm inpa mayam thanga thAmarai pEcum UmaikaL mUnrAvathu thuruvam Arucuvai oru manithan theivam AkirAn nalla nAL killivaLavan maruthu pANdiyan cANakkiyan cAmrAjyam umA chan^dran anbuLLa ajitha (VAP) aahAyam bhoomi (VAP) thaariNi (novel) (VAP) pariharam (novel) (VAP) mullum mAlarum (VAP) vikraman choza mahudam (VAP) chittira valli (VAP)
vishvacEnan paNdiyan mahaL (novel) (VAP) vANidAcan (T. Rangaswami, 1915-1974) ezhilOviyam inba ilakkiyam thiirtha yAththirai kOti mullai iravu varavillai ciriththa nuNA ------------ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
List of Tamil Book Publishers in Madras referenced in the above list:
Kannadasan Pathippaham (KAP)
12, Kannadasan salai, T. Nagar, Madras- 600 017
Tel: 434 5022
Vanadhi Pathippaham (VAP)
PO Box 6151, 13, Deenadhayalu St, T. Nagar, Madras - 600 017
Tel: 434 2810
Manivachar Pathippaham (MVP)
8/7, Singer St, Parrys Corner, Madras-600 108)
Tel: 561 039
Manimekalai Prasuram (MMP)
POBox 1447, 4, Thanikachalam St, T. Nagar, Madras-600 017
Tel: 434 2926 Fax: 434 6082
Thirumagal Nilayam (TMP)
55, Venkata narayana Salai, T. Nagar, Madras-600 017
Tel: 434 2899 Fax: 434 1559
Allaiance Publishers (ALP)
PO BOx 617, 244, Ramakrishna Mutt Road, Mylapore, Madras - 600 004
Tel: 494 1314
The Little Flower Company (LIFCO) Associates (LIF)
PO Box 1028, 43, Ranganathan Street, T. Nagar, Madras - 600 017
Tel:434 1538
Sri Ramakrishna Math (RAM)
16, Sri Ramakrishna Math Road, Mylapore, Madras- 600 004
Tel: 494 1231
Meenakshi Puttaha Nilaiyam (MPN)
60, Melak gopurath theru, Madurai-625 001
Thamizh puththakaalayam (TPA)
11, Sivaprakasam St, Pondy Bazaar, T. Nagar, Madras - 600 017
PO Box 5193, Tel: 4345904
Kumari Padithippaham (KUP)


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